Thursday, 7 July 2016


Saturday, 19 March 2016

Strong , Enduring and Eternal

17." Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights with whom there is no variation or shadow due to change.
18. Of his own will he brought us forth by the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first fruits of his creatures ". 
James  1: 17-18. ESV .

The bond between mother and child is strong indeed ; so strong and enduring that even as adults , most people's first port of call when they seek someone to share the latest news concerning their situations with, are their mothers .
Naturally , in times of need or times of crisis, humans would think first of running to Mother for support , counsel and reassurance because Mother and no one else is the person who could be trusted to give them comfort and to keep their secrets secret from third parties.
Mother , indeed, in the one person to be relied upon for comfort and love when all around us have proved untrustworthy and  unreliable .
People would run to Mother not only for comfort and re-assurance when they are distressed ; but Mother is usually the first person to hear the good news concerning their successes, their blessings and joyous situations .
A Mother's love towards her children endures until her last breath.
Female animals have been known to take on bigger predators than themselves when the lives of their off springs were threatened.
Most mothers, 
if their children were under attack; even in the face of danger to themselves from stronger attackers , would fight off such attackers with all their strength even with their last breath , to protect the lives of their off springs .
Some trees and other plants are famous for protecting their leaves , buds and fruits from invasion by destructive insects, birds and humans. They repel such invasions by putting on their natural defences like thorns , colour camouflages or by emitting unpleasant odours and secreting bitter and poisonous liquids.

Thanks be to God the Creator of all things for giving all His living creatures  the gift of Mother's Love !
Maternal love was created and divinely programmed to be all what it is. A biological mother's love is the sample and the earthly shadow of the real thing which is God's love for His children.
The uniqueness of a mother's love is indisputable as it is the purest , strongest and most reliable manifestation of love which a human being could receive from another human being .
For these reasons , many humans, actually love and cherish their mothers to the extent that if they were faced with the difficult choice of pleasing their mothers and maintaining their relationships with their mothers or displeasing God and losing their close relationship with God ; 
they would prefer to please their mothers.

God's love deserves  to be cherished and appreciated above all other love existing among humans.
God is Love who is unconditional and eternal . 
God's love manifests as the caring Father's love and also as the multi- breasted Mother's all-sufficient love which is more than enough to supply abundantly above all we need or desire . 
" And I will be to her a wall of fire all around, declares the Lord, and I will be the glory in her midst." Zechariah 2: 5.
 All what humans would ever need regarding unconditional and unending love, provisions, faithfulness , protection and care is found in God alone. 

"Can a woman forget her nursing child and 
have no compassion on the son of her womb ?
Even these may forget , but I will not forget you ".
 Isaiah 49:15.
 How could a nursing mother " forget " to care and to have compassion for the child she bore?
Strange as the notion seems , many mothers have done just that. They forgot their children when they were most needed by their children !
A mother's forgetfulness could be deliberate or unintentional.
Even as unique as maternal love is, a mother’s love being human and earthly in its nature, is subject to human failings ; as such, Mother's love cannot measure up to the highest standard which is God's unconditional and perfect love .
Like a shadow is fleeting and is not the substance ,so could the uniqueness of maternal love be fleeting and fallible .
Unintentionally , a careless mother could doze off, forgetting to feed her child , or she could fail to position her child properly in the child's bed leading to cot-death !
Some mothers have ignorantly or carelessly fed their children with contaminated food and water which caused severe life-threatening diseases in the children.
 Some mothers have forgotten to give their sick children the correct dosage of prescribed medications.
When in public places, some mothers forget to keep an eye on their children ; resulting in missing children  and fatal accidents resulting from their children running into the paths of fast-moving vehicles!
These acts of carelessness or / and ignorance by mothers are just a few of such which could cause severe injury or death for their children.
But the Eternal Mother , Jehovah El-Shaddai neither sleeps nor slumbers on duty. Psalm 121:1- 4.
Yahweh , Jehovah God is always on duty , day and night , watching  over His children . 
Blessed be His holy Name.

In times of need , when we turn to our mothers , they would be willing to do everything they could do to come to our aid .
But much as our mothers would be willing to do everything to help us , what if their "everything" is not enough to meet our basic needs and wants? What then ?

Some mothers "forget" their love for their children when it comes to matters of the mothers' desires to spend the lion share of their money on their craving for drink , hard drugs, hard smoke, expensive holidays, the latest fashion, beauty and cosmetics products, jewellery and other desirable gadgets .

Another major issue for some mothers is their love of food vis-à-vis the love for their children . 
Usually, mothers are responsible for the cooking and dishing out the food in the proportions 
as mothers deem fit, to all members of their household. 
Some mothers find it challenging to overcome the temptation of the sin of selfishness and gluttony when it comes to sharing equitably the family meals .
It has been alleged by some children that their own mothers start eating portions of the meat, fish and chicken during when their mothers are cooking the family meals.
By the time the food is ready to be dished out, such mothers would eat more by serving themselves larger portions of meals and keeping the best and biggest pieces of meat and chicken in their soups for themselves , while leaving the smallest and bony pieces for their children and husbands !
The excuse of such mothers for gobbling large portions of
their family meals is :
" For the Scripture says, “You shall not muzzle an ox when it treads out the grain,” and, “The labourer deserves his wages.” 1 Timothy 5: 18.

We have seen the distressing sights of the endless adverts of starving children in the media; used by numerous charities to source for donations .
People have often wondered how is it that the diseased , dying and skeletal children seen in those charity advertisements are ,usually, cuddled by mothers who look fit and rosy-cheeked ?!
I hear you !

In Jehovah El Shaddai God there is no lack , no turning or variableness.  James 1:17. 
Strong and sacrificial is maternal love ; but even a mother's love could waver and falter when her joy and her pleasure over the child she bore have ceased.
Some mothers have chosen to forget their love for their children by abandoning them ; may be because their joy as mothers has ceased , due to many reasons.
Reasons such as the fact that the child or children they bore have turned out to be children of sorrow because of the children's physical deformities or depraved characters which have caused shame and sorrow to their mothers and entire families .
Definitely not what or whom their mothers were expecting the children to become ! 

Strange as it sounds, some mothers in the event of their remarriage or starting a new love relationship have chosen to abandon their own children by seeking their personal happiness and fulfilment in the love of their current man.

 Some mothers have complied if their man demanded that such mothers forsake their own children for him ; as his condition for continuing the love relationship.
Also , some mothers have decided to "change gear " by shifting their love , care and attention from their children to their own personal interests ; by investing their love , time and energy in advancing their personal careers, businesses and their own future financial security .
Such mothers give their reasons for such change as the blatant ingratitude they have received from their children.

Appreciating the awesome dimensions of God 's love as Jehovah El-Shaddai "The Multi -Breasted One", is essential and imperative for maintaining our total trust in God as the ultimate provider and supplier of whatever we need in our lives .
Mothers are special , they are indispensable and where would most of us be without our mothers ?
But like all good things on earth, mothers' love is not eternal.
Some day, these great women who rocked our cradles , who are rocking our world, going the extra mile , spending sleepless nights and busy days to care for us and to nurture us ; like all humans , they will pass away.
Some day, you will wake up and hear that your Mother , your most-trusted confidante, your best friend and the greatest love of your life has gone away from this realm !
But , if she was a Christian , she is alive in eternity .
When Mother has gone Home , her God and your God lives and He is your Strong , Enduring and Eternal Multi-breasted One .
Jehovah , the El-Shaddai God alone deserves our adoration and worship.
Appreciate God's faithfulness and goodness .
 Worship Him . Hallelujah ! 

Thursday, 14 January 2016

Thank you for checking out my book "Vibrant Missions" on Amazon "

Excerpts from the book: 

Vibrant divine missions are not the run-of – the - mill types of missions.
They are remarkable divine missions, launched by power and by love with the intention of striking through all opposing kings to establish the reign of the Gospel of Christ on earth.
There are vibrant divine missions which were specifically ordained by God regarding what the missions will be like , who will carry out the mission and as to when , where and how the missions will be run,

 Vibrant divine missions are, indeed, love offerings and love songs from the love-filled hearts of men and women who offer them to Jesus Christ, the Lord of the Harvest .

For divine missions to be sustained as effectual offerings, the ministerial gifts of the Spirit of God must be used with Love for God and passion for the souls being ministered to.
“He said to him the third time, “Simon, son of John, do you love me?” Peter was grieved because he said to him the third time, “Do you love me?” and he said to him, “Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you.” Jesus said to him “Feed my sheep “. 
John 21:17 ESV

When our divine missions are passed through the fire-test of the word of God which guides His Vision, would our work in divine missions pass the fire- test of the word ?
The end of all divine missions will be when they are laid at the feet of Jesus Christ at the Marriage Feast of the Lamb where all Christians will gather to receive their rewards.
As we present our works to the Lord Jesus  and we give account of our divine missions , would our labour pass the fire-test of LOVE ,FAITH, HOPE which the word of the Vision of God has set as the foundation and the standard for God’s Vision?
 “ For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ. 
Now if any man build upon this foundation gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble;  every man's work shall be made manifest: for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire; and the fire shall try every man's work of what sort it is. 
 If any man's work abide which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward.
 . If any man's work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire.. 1 Corinthians 3 : 11 – 15.

Thursday, 31 December 2015

......Because Jesus Christ is Lord !

It 's another Christmas season and once again the world rolls out the drums of celebrations and worship unto Jesus Christ the son of God who came to live among men and to give mankind  reasons to celebrate at Christmas .
The Christmas Season will end with fan fare with the entrance of the New year on the 1st January.
What a privilege and honour to celebrate another Christmas season being alive and well in the land of the living !
Such amazing grace to partake of God's faithfulness and goodness throughout 2015 !
We say "Thank you, Jesus  "!

This is the time of the year  to take stock of our lives and to give thanks for all the great things the Lord has done for us.
I am sure your own testimonies are as great as mine.
 I have every reason to sing praises , to dance and to shout with the voice of triumph  because the Lord God was very good to me and my household in the year 2015.
My testimony is this , in a nutshell :
As usual , at the beginning of the year 2015, I gave God a list of  requests for my family and for my friends and a list of my desirable personal blessings and victories which were dear to my heart and which I wanted God to do for me , ASAP.
Also,  I told God that in addition to these my desirable blessings and victories , I did not want to carry over any  unfinished projects into 2016.
Talk of giving my Father a "Tall Order!" of gifts desired !
Our prayer lives should not be at its peak at Christmas season only .
We must offer  fervent and continuous prayers and intercessions to God throughout the year .
The fervent prayers of the righteous avail much , coupled with the mercy and the grace of God.

You know what ?
 My God specialises in carrying out  tall orders :  even exceeding what I expected!
Glory Hallelujah ! Jesus is Lord indeed!
Every thing I asked my God at the beginning of  2015 to do for me before the year ended , HE DID THEM ALL for me , beautifully and He even gave me more blessings and victories than I asked for What an awesome God !!
"This is the Lord's doing and it is marvelous in my sight !"
That is why I rejoice not only at Christmas , but everyday of my life !
For my God reigns in my life and in my situations , all through the year .
Taste the Lord and see that the Lord is good , indeed!

Donning one of the "silly head gears!" Hmmm...!

To those who " don't do Christmas " and for those Believers  who "do Christmas" but they believe it should be a season of muted celebrations , spent in sobre reflections over the "sins of the world",
 I say " sorry , but no apologies",  that all these loud Christmas celebrations are IN YOUR FACE , everywhere, all over the earth ! 
Well, you may wonder   why all this fuss , the shopping , the noise , the FEASTING  and the "silly" Christmas wares? !
You don't do Christmas ? Ouch ! 
Wishing you more days on the mountain of " sobre reflections" .
Well. The point is , I ,we , the billions of inhabitants of the earth " do Christmas " with all the fuss , the noise ,  the feasting, the shopping , the "commercialisation" (?) and all the Christmas wears and wares , every year.
How about that ?
We love Christmas  and the earth is rejoicing with loud celebrations and shouts of joy at the birth of  Jesus Christ the King of  Kings, the Prince of Peace who has given Joy to all the world .
Jesus is the Lord of Lords . His birthday is worthy of all celebrations ,
Merry Christmas and Happy New Year !

Big Thanks to you all my wonderful friends , hundreds of you and still counting , who have bought  my books on Amazon Kindle .
God bless you all , richly !
My latest book "It's  Christmas ! Let the Earth Rejoice !!" is about the different perspectives of celebrating Christmas by the different peoples of the earth ; including the discussions about the mentality which preaches the accusations of  "the worldliness and the commercialisation  of Christmas , the pagan Christmas date , pagan symbols , pagan icons and silly wears and wares !" .
This book is a good addition to your Kindle Library.
The contents of the book present a fresh and bright outlook on why all over the world , to the glory of God , both Christians and non-Christians celebrate Christmas .
It is selling fast on Amazon Kindle. 
Grab your copy . Thank you .


Thursday, 17 December 2015

The book - " THE VISION OF MY FATHER " - What is it about ?

Now on sale on  kindle .

Excerpts from the book  : 

" God started His relationship with man from His pedestal as the Creator of man ; as such,  from the beginning , not man, but God called and He is still calling the shots.
God ‘s mind is His will which is expressed through God’s word.
In the relationship between God and man , God’s word were and  have been His guiding principles for man's walk with God .
God ‘s word  says "This is my word to light your path in my relationship with you and these are the consequences of your rejecting my word 
Your reward for obeying my word are peace, victory and joy in my presence for ever."
Then God gave Man and still gives man the freewill to accept or reject His word......"

"The Vision of My Father " is my seven -chapter e-book ; my own little contribution to herald the much -awaited Final Post of the plan of God for mankind. 
It is about , chiefly, the expression of the love of God whereby He created man for the Purpose of ordaining man as God 's heir  on the earth.
Also , I have written about why and how it is imperative that man reciprocates God's Love by responding through Faith and Hope.
This essential thread of God's Love, man's Faith and man's Hope is evident throughout  all the chapters of the book .
The book "The Vision of my Father " sets out  to present God's Salvation Plan from before Elohim the Triune God created man in His own image and before He re-created and transformed the earth from being a watery waste land , festering in darkness to become a beautiful and functional planet; now the befitting place for human habitation  .
The book describes the elaborate preparations made by Elohim to make the earth the very best home for Adam and Eve.
Also , I have written about these Truths :
* Why God speaks to man , even after repeated rebellion from mankind;
* Who Jesus Christ is ;
* How and why the name of Jesus Christ is the only name whereby  man can       be saved.
 * Why Christ is the only way and the only access to God the Father and to            eternal life.  
* Why God has continued to uphold His Vision for mankind  and for the earth; 
* God has kept His word til now ; therefore we can rely on the word of God          regarding the events which will take place soon on the earth.

The Vision of God sets out to deliberately transform the earth for two purposes:
1. Earth was created to be inhabited  by man;
2. The purpose of the Second Coming of the Lord .
Not only was the earth created to be inhabited by humans, but the earth was created to be the place where Christ came to live and to die for all mankind ; also the earth is the planet where Christ after His Second Coming ; will set up the Kingdom of Heaven and His reign as King .
The book discusses the following soon-coming events on the earth ; how and why all mankind must prepare for these events and the position of the Body of Christ, the Church ,  in the Last Days :
1. The Rapture of the Saints ;
2.  The Great Tribulation years after the Rapture ;
3. The Remnant Church;
4. The Second Coming of the Lord Jesus Christ ;
5. The Kingdom of Heaven is established on earth.

Today , more than ever before the Kingdom of God on the earth await the appearing of the Lord Jesus Christ when He will return to the earth an the conquering King of Kings; to begin His reign in the Kingdom of Heaven on earth.
All creations groan and we are excited and expectant as we await the glorious event of the Second Coming of the Lord Jesus Christ .
For Christians ,this will be the time for receiving our expected glorious inheritance as promised by God our Father and our Lord Jesus Christ .
We say , "Come, Lord Jesus !"

Wednesday, 29 July 2015

Golden Calves

A waiting period could be a pleasant experience of restful and blessed assurance or it could be a stressful one filled with doubts and impatience ; depending on the value which one has placed on the expected  persons ,  promises , benefits or the desired thing which one is waiting for .
Any excellent  and desirable person or thing is worth waiting for .
A person who has proved that his word ( promise ) is his honour which he would keep to the letter ; is worth depending on and worth waiting for .

The people of Israel were camped at the foot of Mount Sinai as they awaited  the return of Moses who had gone up the mountain summoned by God to receive further instructions about how Israel should proceed on their journey.
Obeying divine instructions had been the condition for sustaining Israel's continual walk with God and for actualising His promises to them , being a peculiar people ,God's own nation which was distinct among all the other races  .
Before leaving them to go up to the Mount , Moses had told the people why he was embarking on that trip and they agreed to do all what God told Moses. Exodus 24:3.
Moses had gone up the mount with Aaron, Nadab, Abihu and seventy other elders of Israel. At a point on the mount, Moses only was permitted to proceed near to God ; but Aaron and the others were instructed to worship God from afar off. Exodus 24:1,2.
Even at that distant point up there on Mount Sinai, these leaders enjoyed the unusual privilege of seeing God and t
hey had a glorious time in God's presence.

 Then in that steam, they returned to the base camp .
" And they saw the God of Israel.... And upon the nobles of the children of Israel he laid not his hand: also they saw God, and did eat and drink".
Exodus 24: 9-11 .
When expected promises take too long to materialise and the long wait for answers to prayers seems endless and in vain then doubts and impatience would fill the vacuum.
Impatience births doubt , frustration and desperation which lead to error and sin.
Israel had waited for Moses' return for forty days and nights with no sighting of him and no messages from God. 
Then the multitude became impatient and fearful for their future 
In their state of ingratitude , they forgot all their past victories and the glorious miracles which God had wrought for them all the way from Egypt.

The turn of events whereby Israel , led by Aaron and their other leaders actually decided to help themselves by making a golden calf which they bowed down before in worship, as they danced, sang and played; is amazing by all accounts!

" When the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mountain, the people gathered themselves together to Aaron and said to him, “Up, make us gods who shall go before us. As for this Moses, the man who brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we do not know what has become of him.”
2. So Aaron said to them, “Take off the rings of gold that are in the ears of your wives, your sons, and your daughters, and bring them to me.” 
3So all the people took off the rings of gold that were in their ears and brought them to Aaron.
4 And he received the gold from their hand and fashioned it with a graving tool and made a golden[ calf. 

And they said, “These are your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt!”
5When Aaron saw this, he built an altar before it. And Aaron made a proclamation and said, “Tomorrow shall be a feast to the Lord.”
6 And they rose up early the next day and offered burnt offerings and brought peace offerings. And the people sat down to eat and drink and rose up to play ". 
Exodus 32:1-6. 
The reaction of anyone reading this narration of Israel's blunder would be;
 "How on earth could Israel do THAT ?"
Were these idolaters the same Israelites and their leaders , the chosen people of God , who all had witnessed the awesome miracles wrought by God's power right from the moment when Moses first stood before Pharaoh to utter the audacious demand , "Let my people go and worship me in the wilderness!" ?; then they saw the spectacular displays of unusual miracles at the Red Sea and as they went on their God ordained journey to the Promised land?
After all said and done for Israel by God , how could these people commit the monstrous atrocities of gathering  their precious ornaments to make a golden calf and then actually bow down before it !?

This great blunder was a collective agreement by the leaders and the led.
 Aaron and the other leaders were in charge of the people during Moses' absence.
The same leaders who saw God on the Mount failed in their duties as mentors to the restless Israelites when the people became ungrateful , impatient and filled with doubts to the extent of demanding for Aaron to make a golden-calf god.
The Bible did not say whether Aaron used all or whether he used a fraction of the people's gold which he collected to make the golden calf or whether he diverted a large chunk of the gold for himself and his family.

People should be amazed indeed at the ingratitude of the Israelites .

 And he received the gold from their hand and fashioned it with a graving tool and made a goldencalf. 
And they said, “These are your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt!” Exodus 32 :4 .
But would most human beings have done and said differently from what the Israelites said and did against the Almighty God if they were in the same desperate situation of a lengthy wait without hearing from Moses and from God? 
If expected promises take too long to materialise and the long wait for helpers seem endless and in vain, then impatience and doubts would start brewing in human minds .
What would you do and what have you done when you have waited for a very long period and the answers to your fervent prayers have not manifested ?
Would you resort to "helping God" and helping yourselves in order to birth your long awaited miracles ?
How many of your "precious gold ornaments" have you given up as offerings to all sorts of priests and religious leaders to aid them to make golden calves for you to worship as other gods , just to receive your miracles?
The words "idol" and "graven images " conjure the pictures of graven , carved or sculptured images of demonic deities in the resemblances of animals , humans, birds , mermaids and reptiles and so on.
Most people , especially real Christians , would recoil from bowing to such graven images of demons.
May be you have vowed that you would never bow down to any graven images and indeed you have not done that ,you have kept to your vow so far.
But consider this : idols and graven images are of different sorts.
Graven images or idols are not physical images only.
Golden calves are whatsoever turn people's focus from God's word and from the finished work of God's salvation and deliverance by grace through Christ  Jesus.
Idols turn people's focus to self- help , to other gods and to arms of flesh.  
The list of "golden calves" erected and worshipped  by different people is as lengthy as it diverse. 
It is different strokes for different folks.

"Golden calves" could be those LEGITIMATE needs , wants, fervent desires, human ambitions, dreams and aspirations or they could be religious  doctrines or worldly systems which people hold dear.
There is no law against achieving legitimate dreams and aspirations. 
How far one is willing to go in order to get possess one's desires and those "must have"dreams and achievements would confirm the depth of idolatry.
Your own golden calves to which you would readily bow down in fervent worship could be your dreams and aspirations ; they could be those person(s) , places or things, habits , vices and that status which you have idolised so much that for these idols , you are ready to do and say anything it takes to impress and please them, to possess them, to indulge in them and to be seen that you have "arrived " at that place or level.
At that desperate point when there is the  realisation that a person is heading towards idolatry or have actually resorted to idolatry to get what is desired, then it is time for a re-think and a re-tracing of steps , back to God.

You have seen God in action and you know that God's blessings and miracles abound in your life; but now you desire more and greater miracles .

When you have prayed with faith and with earnest expectation and you have waited for long for your desired answers but your wait seems all to no avail? 
What next ? Are you tired, discouraged and forgetful of God's deliverance? 
“The harvest is past,The summer is ended,
And we are not saved ! " Jeremiah 8 : 22.
Complaining and doubts lead to  seeking other gods.
God says:"Is there no more help in my name and no power in my blood?" 
"Do I not save to the utmost ? "
" Is there no balm in Gilead, Is there no physician there?

Why then is there no recovery ? For the health of the daughter of my people ?" Jeremiah 8 :22.
Patience and perseverance are the keys which expose well-guarded secrets .
The well-guarded secrets of the enemy of our souls is that Satan has nothing good to offer ; what he presents as the perfect solutions are not even nearly as good as the alternatives to what we would receive  from God by waiting on Him. 

The source of our Hope as we wait is the Word of God . 
This hope in the Word sustains our patience ; it is our strength in the times of despair .
Our God sees us , He knows , He listens to our cries for help and He cares about us.

" Listen! The voice,The cry of the daughter of my people
From a far country:
“Is not the Lord in Zion?
Is not her King in her? 
Why have they provoked Me to anger

With their carved images—With foreign idols?”. Jeremiah 8:19.

Ingratitude leads to impatience and doubts which displeases God and invokes God's wrath causing diverse problems in human lives. 
God is ever present , always at hand with His answers for us.
May we persevere in faith and never lose out completely at the gates of our breakthroughs! 
If only while we would wait on the Lord and we could be patient and persevere till the end .
If we could see the immediate future, what glorious scenes we would behold! 
Scenes of blessings which add no sorrows and scenes of glory , peace and everlasting joy; prepared for us by our loving Father .
" Oh that you had paid attention to my commandments ! Then your peace would have been like a river, and " your righteousness like the waves of the sea " ; Isaiah 48:18.
Israel lost out because they provoked God and incurred God's curses , just before Moses returned with good news for them from God after his encounter with God on the Mount .
Receive grace for strength to stand firm till the end . Amen !
Always, we pray O Lord that our response to all temptations which call for building and worshipping golden calves  must be the same as these words of determination spoken by the Prophet Habakkuk  during the dark days of despair.
The Lord God is my strength; He will make my feet like deer’s feet,
And He will make me walk on my high hills ". Habakkuk 3 : 19.